Nanotechnology, the science of the future
Nanotechnology is one focus of attention for many researchers in the world, why nanotechnology is a science of the future.
Nanotechnology is the exploitation of the properties and phenomena manifest matter at the nanometer scale, and its purpose is research and development at the atomic level of phenomena and materials at the nano scale. The prefix nano refers to the ability to understand the fundamentals and properties of objects with dimensions of a few nanometers.
That is a nanometer
The nanometer is a unit of length equal to one millionth of a millimeter. To get an idea of who is a nanometer, suffice to say that in a cubic nanometer of a material, there are only a few hundred atoms .
Origin of nanotechnology
We can say that nanotechnology is rooted in evolution electronics suffering throughout the twentieth century and especially in the development of integrated circuits and microelectronics, where there is a real concern about the decrease of the dimensions of materials produced.
Working at the nanoscale involves manipulating atoms and molecules to order, so that they can perform specific functions. These processes have not been developed until it has had tools able to view and manipulate these particles. These tools are the scanning tunneling microscope and proximity microscopes for measuring properties such as electrostatic forces , magnetic bearings and light intensity, besides allowing to manipulate atoms and molecules. On the scale of nanotechnology, the field shows a specific behavior due to the prevalence of both quantum effects, such as those derived from the high surface / mass of the nano particles.
Applications of Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology, as a result of being applicable to virtually all branches of science and technology, presents an almost infinite capacity to create new applications and devices that introduce fundamental changes in the habits of people and their environment at all levels .
Nanotechnology will lead to the development of production processes optimized, efficient and sustainable. Thanks to this, the materials produced have improved properties and it is possible that there is a saving in the application thereof, and to reduce environmental pollution. Many of these processes will be optimized by using new catalysts based on nano particles. Nanotechnology is focused on the creation of new materials with lighter weight and better mechanical performance, optimizing properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity.
Applications of nanotechnology in construction covering fields as diverse as knowledge and modeling of phenomena that appear at the nano-scale, the development of particles, fibers modified nano structure materials, functional materials, thin films, energy efficient systems, smart materials, incorporating nano sensors, etc. In the field of computer applications, appear processors, memories and peripherals faster, tiny and sophisticated molecular switches. The nano circuits be designed with specific electronic properties. With all this, you can create quantum computers .
In medical applications assist spectacular development, such nanoscale devices capable of delivering drugs at specific localized areas, improved diagnostic techniques in real time by monitoring a number of variables and the use for measurement of nano sensors Vital signs in real time. Pollution controls may be enhanced by the quality of water, the atmosphere, the environmental conditions of housing and jobs. These are just some examples of what can nanotechnology, which in coming years will present a substantial growth, with new applications in all fields of science.