How to produce electricity with water
The hydroelectric plants represent one of the oldest methods to generate electricity with water: hydraulic turbines are activated by the mass of water that passes through the inside them, taking advantage of the potential energy which then turn into mechanical energy. The latter, in turn, is used to produce electricity, connecting the axis of the turbine to an alternator or generator of electricity, and the energy produced is sent to homes and offices.
If we make a comparison between the production of energy through hydroelectric plants and coal-fired plants, oil and gas, we see that the latter use valuable and limited natural resources, produce contamination and require digging wells to get the coal, oil or gas they need. In the case of hydropower, the fuel does not burn so the contamination is minimal, the water used to generate the energy is provided by nature itself and it is primarily a renewable resource.
The electric power that can be obtained depends on the amount of water channeled, by pressure and electrical efficiency of the generator . The water that comes from the turbine , returns to its original course at a lower level than that in which it was collected. The most relevant properties of the hydraulic energy is that it allows to be used in a small scale, in a very economic, with the application of microturbines and piccoturbine hydraulic. The first, with a power less than 100 kW, are adequate to deliver electricity to small farms or farm explorations: require for their operation a height between 5 and 30 mca and a caudal that varies in function of the power to be generated (35 to 500 l / s). The picoturbine, from the point of view of the structure, are similar to the micro turbines but have less power: they use the hydraulic energy of streams, channels and ducts and administering electricity with lower power to 5000 W, the power that allows electrify a home or farm generating the watts needed for lighting and small motors and appliances. They can operate with little height and a little tail: the minimum height they need to generate electricity is 1.5 mca and caudal varies from 35 to 130 l / s.
Both the picoturbine as micro turbines can generate alternating current at 220 V or current at 12 or 24 V, which is equivalent to that can integrate to a hybrid system is autonomous, with solar panels, wind turbines, diesel, and use the same accumulators current Continuous addition, they can also work, if the tail water is always constant, such as generators 220 V continuously, regardless of accumulators and consuming the electricity that is being produced at the same time. The systems micro hydraulic apply where there is a administer of energy to meet and where it is available a water course, although limited If you only require a few kW to the minimum needs of a farm, you can enter directly into the bed of a small stream of water a turbine and alternator , with the cable that electricity reaches the place of exploitation was.