How a dynamo works
The principle of the dynamo goes back to the English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday.
The dynamo or electrical generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. He uses the principle of electromagnetic induction, which by the English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday – was discovered (1791, 1867). Moved to a metal ring, an electrical conductor in the vicinity of a magnet, in that conductor, a voltage is generated (induced). Moving the head by the magnetic field between the two poles of the magnet is from the voltage electric current.
The magnitude of the voltage depends on the length of the conductor (or the number of its turns) and the speed with which it is moved. Once the electrical conductor is rotated in the magnetic field, the direction of the generated current varies continuously and there is AC. With a dynamo or electric generator rotates between the two poles of a horseshoe magnet (stator) with an axis as many wire windings (rotor or armature called). The end result in two isolated fixed slip rings, and “brush” the current is removed.
Without cooling, the wires of the armature would be heated to very
In order to obtain direct current, so current always flows in the same direction, one has to invert the terminal ends exactly at the moment in which the current will change direction. Also the wire ends are not connected to the slip rings, but with a commutator (commutator), a subdivided, rotating contact. On the opposite side of the commutator two brushes are mounted so that they during rotation of the armature forming an electrical contact with the two ends of exactly one revolution per unit of time.
The dynamo of a car, the alternator is usually bolted to the engine and with the V-belt driven, which lies at one end of the dynamo to a pulley. Cooling fins, is blown through the air on the armature, and vents ensure that the alternator is not too hot. Without cooling, the wires of the armature would be of the electric current which flows through them, are heated too much.
The apparatus of Anyos Jedlik remained largely unknown
The major electricity generators in power plants are driven by type of power plant of different power sources: diesel engines, steam turbines or water pressure. The first known alternator constructed in 1832 by the instrument maker Antoine Hippolyte Pixii at the suggestion of physicist and mathematician Andre-Marie Ampere.
The model consisted of two coils in which a horseshoe magnet circled. The current was still in the same direction in the machine by means of a commutator. As the inventor of the generator without permanent magnet apply Werner of Siemens and the Hungarian Anyos Jedlik. 1866 Siemens discovered the dynamo-electric principle and built the first dynamo. Anyos Jedlik had invented this machine for six years before. This remained largely unknown.